How to take time off work
Before addressing the leadership on this issue, clarify for yourself a few points.
How painless will your company be for the company? Who can insure you for a while, while you do your business? How urgent are these cases and how convincing will they look in the eyes of the leadership? When do you need to go, and how long are you going to be absent? Do you plan to return to the workplace on the same day, or is it for some reason impossible or meaningless? How can you compensate for your absence at work on this particular day?
The answer to all these questions will already dictate to you a scenario of further behavior.
If you need a security, first get the support of colleagues. Explain to them why you need to leave, explain, if necessary, what is required of them, enter them, if necessary, into the course of tasks. Offer a reciprocal courtesy or remind about a previously rendered service, if that was the case.
If you have a normal relationship in your team, there should not be any problems at this stage. But even in cases when a colleague starts to argue, not everything is lost. He can insure you in some cases already on the instructions of the boss, and from him just as easily will not be dismissed.
The next stage is an appeal to the immediate superior. Let him understand that you, solving personal problems, do not for a moment forget about your job duties. The best confirmation of this in his eyes will be to make sure that you have tried to choose the least suitable for the lack of time, figured out the possible consequences, took care of the options for insurance, provided, if necessary, the way in which you compensate for your absence. For example, they are ready at another time to stay at work, take on extra workload, etc.
Most often, a positive decision of the immediate leader will suffice. However, in some companies, only a boss of a higher rank is entitled to make such decisions, in small and medium-sized companies - up to the first person.
In this situation, it is important for you to obtain the consent of direct leadership. Often this will be quite enough, but be prepared and answer the roughly the same list of questions that have already come to you along with the need to ask for it.