Tip 1: How to conduct a survey
In order to properly conduct a survey, you must first have a clear idea of what information you wish to receive and whether you give this group of people. After all, if you ask fifth-grade students about whether they like the teacher or not, it can't testify to the professionalism and competence of teachers.
The second important issue is the sample. Given that a continuous survey requires huge material costs and time, it is better to poll a certain percentage of the audience. Without a well formed sample the results of your survey may be invalid. After all, you need to take into account gender, social, age, national, religious and other factors. After all, if the survey of residents of any yard, you will have 90% of pensioners, the efficiency of such sampling is very small. All groups among the respondents, the people should be represented in equal proportions.
The next important step is questionnaire development. They can be as open or closed. The type of questionnaire depends on how easily you can handle and what kind of information will eventually get. Therefore, the issues need to be based on your hypothesis and the existing problems. Most importantly, that they were not too much, as people don't always want to spend an hour of time to answer. When you definitely should specify the time and place.
In order to successfully conduct a survey, you need to choose the place and time of the survey. This will depend on what social groups will be taken for questioning. Because the day on a weekday home you will find workers or students, etc.
A separate issue is the design of the survey. The document you receive at the end of the study, should include a description of the formulation of the hypotheses of this survey, results and conclusions. In the hypothesis it is necessary to describe in detail the rationale and methodology of the research. Then we formulate the problem you wish to solve with the help of the survey, justifies the sample, characterized by the audience.
When conducting a survey, remember that this is the real scientific research and it should be carried out according to a specific scheme, taking into account clear rules and requirements.
In the public mind there has long been the opinion thatpoll is almost the only method of practical sociology. To put it mildly, such an assessment is not quite correct, since among the methods of sociology there are many such that are not related topoll ami Besides,poll can not be recognized solely by a sociological method, it is widely used in political science, journalism, psychology, law and other social studies.
- Survey plan, questionnaire
Sociologicalpoll designed to provide information on people's opinions, assessments of their social phenomena, about the States of group and individual consciousness. These motives, opinions and phenomena are the attributes studied by the sociology of objects. If the examined object does not have sufficient information, if it is not available to direct observation and not amenable to experiment, the significance of sociological poll and increases.
Domestic sociology is replete with attempts to usepoll We as the main method of obtaining experimental data, although it is often more effective to study a number of phenomena by other means. The reason lies in the fact that the novice sociologistpoll This method seems convenient, simple and even universal.
Unfortunately, the possibilitiespoll s in sociology are limited. Received duringpoll s details often reflect the subjective views of respondents. Such data need to be compared with the information of an objective nature, obtained more standardized methods and techniques. The greatest effect of sociological poll We give in combination with observation, experiment and content analysis.
Sociological methodspoll and very diverse. In addition to widespread questionnaires, they include various types of interviews, postal, telephone, expert and otherpoll s. Any speciespoll They have their own characteristics, based, nevertheless, on general principles and approaches.
Before embarking on a sociologicalpoll y, it is necessary to clearly define the purpose and procedure of the study. To holdpoll and, thus, precedes the deep to develop a research program, clarifying the goals, objectives, categories of analysis, hypothesis, object and subject of research. Don't forget to also outline the sample (quantitatively and qualitatively) and to choose the most effective tools.
A survey, in the most general case, involves drawing up a set ofpoll s decorated in the form ofpoll sheet. Such a set serves to achieve the goal of the research, to prove or disprove the hypothesis put forward. Especially careful to think through and hone the wording inpoll s because they will capture categories of analysis.
If the analysis of respondents' answers does not take into account their social and demographic characteristics, the sociologicalpoll loses all meaning. thereforepoll The required sheet must have a passport part where the data about the person being interviewed is entered (in accordance with the objectives of the research program).
As a special act of communication between the interviewer and the respondent, a sociologicalpoll should be carried out in compliance with a number of rules. The respondent must be interested inpoll e, he should know who and for what purpose interrogates him. The respondent must unambiguously understand the meaning and content inpoll but.
ATpoll We must be formulated in compliance with the language norms. Everyone's wording inpoll but must correspond to the cultural level of the respondent. The possibility of discretion inpoll ah meaning offensive to the respondent should be categorically excluded. Total number inpoll s should fit within the framework of common sense and not tire the respondent. These are just a few points that should be considered by a sociologist who intends to usepoll as a method of sociological research.